High-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a bulk structure characterization technique widely used in materials research taking advantage of the high penetration power into material, large accessible q-range, and small correction factors. In situ measurements study materials under various conditions. Operando studies are essential for the insight of structural change in functional during operation to improve their performance. XRD can resolve phase identities and other features, like particle size, microstrain, structural defects. The beamlines operated by the Structural Science (SRS) group, and offer a wide range of in situ and operando powder XRD and total scattering measurement capabilities with sub-second temporal resolution. The beamlines operate in x-ray transmission geometry with monochromatic beams and area detectors, and in case of 11-BM with an array of analyzer crystals and scintillators for highest resolution. Most recent developments include an in-line Raman system at 17-BM that allows simultaneous measurement of XRD/PDF and Raman spectroscopy data under controlled temperature and gas environment. The station 11-ID-B is enabling studies on surfaces and interfaces with an optional line focus of a few micrometer beam height, and a hexapod will allow highly accurate control of specimen orientation and enable surface and interface scattering. At 11-ID-C, a heavy-load hexapod stage provides similar capabilities, but for heavy equipment up to 250 kg. The high-resolution beamline 11-BM has now the option to switch to an area detector for rapid checks on the sample status. It is possible to mail in samples to 11-BM, 11-ID-B and 17-BM. The group has a strong emphasis on battery research, and is maintaining an electrochemistry facility, called eChem Lab, which is accessible 7/24 for all users at the APS to prepare their cells. The lab offers next to standard lab equipment two glove boxes with Argon atmosphere, one dedicated for Sulphur containing materials.
|11-BM is dedicated to high-resolution powder diffraction measurements.The instrument operates over the energy range 25-35 keV, and combines a sagittally focused monochromator with multiple Si crystal analyzers to achieve exceptional resolution and sensitivity.The beamline offers a unique mail-in service for rapid access, and supports on-site user experiments for non-routine powder diffraction measurements.||Technical Specifications|
|11-ID-B is dedicated to Pair-Distribution-Function (PDF) measurements with area detectors. The instrument operates at high X-ray energies (58.6 keV, 86.7 keV) and is optimized for High throughput measurements and non-ambient / in-situ measurements. Typical configurations may involve a sample changer, cryostream, compact furnace/flow cell, and single-crystal diffuse scattering (under development). Now available for General Users is a combined Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFTS) and PDF sample cell used for multimodal measurements.||Technical Specifications|
|11-ID-C is used for scattering studies at extreme conditions. The high energy X-ray beam (105.6 keV) is highly penetrating and allows a wide coverage of reciprocal space over a small angular scattering range. This is particularly advantageous for experiments that require bulky sample environments (e.g. magnets, cryostats, levitator).||Technical Specifications|
|17-BM-B is dedicated to rapid acquisition powder diffraction experiments using an area detector, where moderate resolution data can be obtained in fractions of seconds. The versatile set-up can accommodate a wide range of sample environments and is well suited to parametric/in situ/in operando measurements. Standard configurations include a sample changer, cryostream, compact furnace/flow cell, compact pressure cells (<10 GPa, under development). Note: This program relocated from 1-BM in August 2012.||Technical Specifications|
|The eChem lab is equipped with a state-of-the-art Ar-atmosphere glovebox with fridge/freezer unit, and small and large antechambers. The glovebox is supplied with Li and Na metals, standard electrolytes, coin cell crimping tools and accessories needed to assemble battery cells. The lab is also equipped with three mobile 8-channel MACCOR® battery cyclers capable of running independent experiments, a single-channel CH Instruments® potentiostat, a vacuum oven, balances, bench space and standard laboratory consumables.||Details|