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APS User News-at-a-Glance Issue 45: November 30, 2007

Advanced Photon Source
Argonne National Laboratory

www.aps.anl.gov
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CONTENTS

MESSAGE FROM MURRAY
--Extensive U of C Review Completed

SCIENCE NEWS
1. HOLD THE DATE: Upgrade Workshop October 20-21, 2008
2. Featured Beamline: GISAXS at 8-ID-E, Focusing on Nanoscience

USER MATTERS
3. Ten Tips for an Easy ESAF

FACILITY NEWS
4. Update on XOR Beamline Upgrades
5. APS Response to Violations of APS and Argonne Policies by Users

BRIEFLY NOTED
-- FY2008 Schedule Posted
-- Laboratory Closed for Holidays

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MESSAGE FROM MURRAY

--Extensive U of C Review Completed

I am extremely pleased with the outcome of a recent extensive review of APS conducted as part of our operating contract. The many positive comments made by an eminent group of reviewers are a reflection of the outstanding work done by APS staff and users, and you all deserve many thanks. The University of Chicago-Argonne LLC, which operates Argonne National Laboratory under contract for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), organized the triennial review, as required by the DOE contract. The APS review, one of the most extensive we have undergone, was divided into parts and involved three review committees: Accelerator and Operations on May 15 and 16; Safety at APS on August 27 and 28; and APS Science on September 17-19. The third committee was also asked to synthesize the reports of the others. Experts from around the world were brought in to help evaluate each of the above areas, with Vic Suller (CAMD), Frank Kornegay (SNS/ORNL), and Gerd Materlik (Diamond Light Source) as chairs of the committees. At this point we have received written reports, addressed to the director of Argonne, from two out of the three review committees, and the oral feedback at closeout from the third.

At the closeout of the Science Review, the committee complimented the APS, pointing out that the overall quality of science was of the highest international standards, that the April 2006 reorganization seems to have been a positive move, and that the CAT-to-XOR transitions have been successful. Areas identified where improvements might be made included workloads and career paths for beamline scientists, a more coherent protein crystallography program, more investment in detectors, and more input to APS management from a life scientist experienced in synchrotron radiation.

The committee shared our excitement about plans for an energy-recovery LINAC upgrade, and encouraged us that a clear plan for R&D is needed to accomplish our goals. We have recently developed such plan in the form of a proposal to the DOE for support for the R&D required.

The report from the Accelerator and Operations committee stated that “the performance of the APS accelerator is at a very high level judged by world standards” and that they were “impressed by the APS culture that concentrates on further improvement.” The committee applauded the reorganization of April 2006, recognizing that it improved efficiency and freed some resources for beamline support. They urged us to ensure that connections between the accelerator and engineering support divisions, especially in areas such as controls, remain intimate.

The report from the safety review committee recognized that “APS is a world-class research facility with an excellent safety record” and that “user training and the ESAF process are particularly noteworthy.” Among opportunities for improvement they reminded us to be responsive to observations and suggestions made by staff and users; to evaluate the current workload of the floor coordinators ; and to provide Internet-based, off-site training.

These reviews provide very useful guidance to APS. While we are pleased with the positive support, we are listening carefully to suggestions for improvement. Because these are confidential reviews, we are unable to publish the full reports and our response; however these will be discussed and shared with the executive committee of the APS Users Organization and the Partner User Council.

On December 10-13, the Department of Energy will conduct their own independent review of the APS. I believe that the U of C committee reviews help guide us in positive directions to the benefit of the DOE, and can help us be more successful in the DOE review. Nonetheless, we recognize the need for the DOE to review us independently of our contractor. I thank you all in advance for your help in preparing for this very important review.

SCIENCE NEWS

1. HOLD THE DATE: Upgrade Workshop October 20-21, 2008

The APS is planning a workshop with users and staff to explore a major upgrade to the APS for the next decade. The workshop will be held near Chicago on October 20-21, 2008. More information will provided in future issues.

2. Featured Beamline: GISAXS at 8-ID-E, Focusing on Nanoscience

Researchers interested in nanoparticles, nanostructures, nanocomposites, and their self-assemblies, have an exceptional new resource at the APS: namely, beamline 8-ID-E, which houses a dedicated grazing incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) instrument.

At this beamline, GISAXS can be used to study surface structures ranging from a few nanometers to hundreds of nanometers in size, a length scale of great interest in current surface nanoscience. As such, it captures the surface and interfacing structures and kinetics on the scale not addressed by other x-ray techniques that probe mostly bulk structures such as crystallography, powder diffraction, or conventional small-angle x-ray scattering.

The 8-ID beamline optic is fairly simple yet offers superb beam stability and beam quality. This results in extremely good resolution in reciprocal space for structural investigations up to µm scales, as well as good time-resolving capabilities to study diffusion and self-assembly kinetics. At the fixed x-ray energy (7.35keV), a q range from 3 x 10 -3 to 0.3 Å -1 can be investigated. Time resolution depends on the detector used but in general ranges from a few milliseconds to many seconds. By varying the incidence angle, the penetration depth of the x-rays can be changed from a few nanometers to the entire sample thickness. This makes GISAXS suitable to study buried interfaces or thin structures as a function of depth. In most cases, very short x-ray exposures are sufficient to yield the GISAXS patterns that contains the structural information in real time so that the beamline can be operated in a high-throughput mode. Many samples can be screened for optimizing fabrication processes of the nanostructures and nanocomposites.

Several sample chambers are available allowing samples to be studied either in vacuum or under solvent atmosphere. Other sample chambers can also easily be accommodated in the Huber 6-circle diffractometer. A precision heating and cooling stage controls temperature from 0ºC to 400ºC.

The following are among the many research topics where GISAXS of this type can provide valuable information:

Some projects can also benefit from the excellent beam stability and the complementary x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) program at 8-ID/XOR.

A schematic of the GISAXS setup, as well as further background, can be found in an article about the beamline on page 141 of the 2005 APS Annual Report. Beam characteristics are found here.

Users interested in exploring GISAXS at 8-ID-E should contact Michael Sprung, 8-ID-E beamline scientist (sprung@aps.anl.gov) or Jin Wang, Time-Resolved Research Group Leader, X-ray Operations and Research (wangj@aps.anl.gov).

Representative publications for GISAXS at 8-ID-E

Representative publication for XPCS at 8-ID-E

All publications for both stations on beamline 8-ID

USER MATTERS

3. Ten Tips for an Easy ESAF

We asked APS Safety Officer Bruce Glagola and his deputy, Nena Moonier, for suggestions on ways you can expedite safety approval of your experiment. A few advance-minute thoughts for your ESAF (Experiment Safety Assessment Form) can save a lot of last-minute headaches!

1. Complete the ESAF at least seven days before the start of the experiment.

2. Allow more time for high-risk experiments (e.g., those with radioactivity, biohazards, etc.) and procedures new to APS.

3. Look up Experimenters information using the "Find" link.

4. Write the experiment description in a way that clarifies the hazards involved.

5. Use the "Attach file" function to attach information that will aid the safety review (e.g., standard operating procedures, approval letters, material safety data sheets [especially for exotic materials], equipment diagrams ).

6. Fully identify all samples/materials to be used: avoid acronyms and abbreviations.

7. Properly identify the hazards of all samples/materials. Don't assume that because you work with a material all the time that it has no hazards.

8. For macromolecular crystallography, provide information on the system of expression.

9. Know if your samples/materials might be regulated for transport, use, or possession.

10. Identify the equipment that will be used and provide a description if you are bringing it to the APS.

Bonus tip! Complete required training so that the Experiment Authorization can be posted and the experiment can begin promptly.

The entire experiment approval process exists to support the following APS mission statement: "At the Advanced Photon Source, highest priority will be given to assuring the health and safety of employees, users, and visitors, as well as to protecting the environment." As a user, your responsibility in supporting this mission is to fully identify the material, equipment, and procedures you will use and demonstrate that you understand both the inherent hazards of the material and the hazards involved in handling it.

Bruce, Nena, the floor coordinators, and the beamline staff are all available to help you design an experiment that can be conducted safely within the facilities here at the APS.

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Policy and procedure for experiment safety reviews

Safety and training web page: http://www.aps.anl.gov/Safety_and_Training/index.html

Contacts: Bruce Glagola, 630-252-9797 or 630-417-9661, glagola@aps.anl.gov; Nena Moonier, 630-252-8504, on-site pager, 4-8504, nmoonier@aps.anl.gov.

FACILITY NEWS

4. Update on XOR Beamline Upgrades

Past issues of User News have mentioned ambitious upgrade plans within XOR beamlines. At a recent monthly operations meeting, George Srajer, head of XOR, presented a summary of work completed to date in sectors 1, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 20, 32, 33, and 34. He also outlined the next phases of the ongoing projects and presented their current priorities. His presentation is online under Meetings and Seminars, APS/Users Operations Monthly Meeting (August 29, 2007).

5. APS Response to Violations of APS and Argonne Policies by Users

The APS is operated for the Department of Energy and has instituted policies and procedures to protect the safety and security of users and the environment, as well as to comply with laws and relevant DOE regulations. We must be able to prove to our sponsors that our user requirements are known and implemented. The vast majority of our users follow our requirements, and we are thankful for that. Nonetheless, in 2007 we had a few instances where individual users significantly violated APS and Argonne policies. We felt it would be useful to explain to users our procedure to deal with such violations. The response by the APS varies depending on the severity of the situation, but typical steps are listed below.

Suspend Work Order: If there is reason to believe that an APS/Argonne policy has been violated, a suspend work order will be issued until it is determined whether a policy has been violated and what the safety implications (if any) of that violation are.

On-the-Spot Investigation: APS representatives will immediately begin an investigation of the incident to determine whether there are additional safety concerns that need to be immediately addressed and to begin the process to determine if the incident is reportable via the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS).

Removal of User from the Argonne Site: Depending on the severity of the violation, steps may be taken to ensure the person(s) violating the policies are removed from the Argonne site. For a General User, this step may mean asking the user to leave the Argonne site for the duration of the scheduled beamtime (or longer). For a resident user, his or her Argonne badge may be confiscated.

Return of User to the Argonne Site: The APS management will determine under what conditions the violator may return. Return may be allowed after the user takes (or re-takes) safety training relevant to the violation, or some other training.

Notification of Supervisor: The direct supervisor of the violator will be notified as soon as the facts are known. For students and post-docs, the supervisor would be the professor. For faculty members, it would typically be the department chairman or the dean. If the violator is a CAT member, the CAT director will be notified.

Notification of Signatory of User Agreement : In addition, the office of the signatory of the user agreement under which the user was operating may be notified once the facts are established. A copy of the ORPS report may be included in the notification summarizing the violation that took place. The letter will summarize the event and actions taken by APS. The letter may also request the institution to take certain actions as a result of the violation.

BRIEFLY NOTED

-- FY2008 Schedule Posted

The schedule through September 2008 has been posted: http://www.aps.anl.gov/Facility/Schedule/index.html. In anticipation of funding difficulties, the second run of 2008 has been shortened by one week (May 21-28 currently not scheduled for operation).

-- Laboratory Closed for Holidays
Argonne National Laboratory will be closed for the holidays from December 24 through January 1, 2008. Normal operations will resume on January 2.

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2007 UC Review Committee Membership

UC Argonne Board of Governors Liaison: Chuck Shank (former director, LBNL)

Accelerator Review, May 15 and 16, 2007

Joe Bisognano (Synchrotron Radiation Center); Pascal Elleaume (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); Bob Hettel (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center); Lia Merminga (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility); Kem Edward Robinson (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); Victor Suller, Chair (Louisiana State University)

Safety Review, August 27 and 28, 2007

Paul Berkvens (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); William (Bob) Casey (Brookhaven National Laboratory); Frank C. Kornegay, Chair (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Timothy J. P. Tess (Argonne National Laboratory); Stanley A. Urbanik, P.E. (E. I. du Pont de Nemours)

Science Review, September 17-19, 2007

Joe Bisognano (Synchrotron Radiation Center); Janos Kirz ( Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); Sine Larsen (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility);
Gerd Materlik, Chair (Diamond Light Source Ltd.); Yves Petroff ( Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel); Ron Pindak (Brookhaven National Laboratory); Kem Edward Robinson (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); Victor Suller (Louisiana State University); Patricia Thiel (Iowa State University)