APS User News-at-a-Glance Issue 34: September 26, 2005
Advanced Photon Source www.aps.anl.gov

1. Message from Murray

2. DOE Supports Science and Technology Faculty, Students Affected by Katrina
3. Cheaper Silicon Found Effective for Solar Cells
4. Two APS Groups Awarded NIH Protein Structure Initiative Grants of More Than $100 Million
5. Argonne Supercomputing Resource Available to APS Users
6. Two from HP-CAT win Balzan Prize
7. Student User Meets Nobel Laureates

8. Summer Schools Train 117 Students

---"New user" scholarships available for SNS/HFIR users meeting
---Correction: Beamtime Allocation Committee meeting date
---New menu unwrapped at 401 Grill
---Construction affects access from west


Instructions for subscribing, unsubscribing, and submitting info:

1. Message from Murray : Cross-Cut Review, COM-CAT/Sector 32 Update

2006 SAC Cross-Cut Review. The Science Advisory Committee (SAC) for the APS periodically reviews the research carried out by APS users. To supplement the regular sector-specific reviews, the committee engages in cross-cutting reviews of research at APS, regardless of sector, in a particular scientific or technique area. On January 26, 2006, during the next Science Advisory Committee meeting, we plan to hold a cross-cut review on the subject of polymer science. We will invite all sectors working in this area to nominate presentations for this review and will invite some additional scientific experts to supplement the SAC review. As in the past, the review will be entirely open and should fulfill a valuable additional role of information exchange. You will hear more soon, but if you have ideas or comments, please send them to the scientific coordinator for the meeting, P. Thiyagarajan (thiyaga@anl.gov), and to Susan Strasser in the User Office (strasser@aps.anl.gov).

SAC web page: http://www.aps.anl.gov/About/Committees/Scientific_Advisory_Committee/

Update on Sector 32 . The growth of the APS and related activities in Illinois has been greatly facilitated by generous investments from the State of Illinois . The largest was the construction of the Argonne Guest House, which provides an invaluable resource for visiting users. The XCITE program, sponsored by the State for many years, supported beamline activities at local universities and contributed substantially to APS success. The State of Illinois also generously provided funds to construct a beamline at Sector 32 of the APS that was dedicated to serving the small business community without expertise to directly use the Advanced Photon Source. A state-of-the-art beamline capable of powder diffraction, spectroscopy and protein crystallography was built by APS under the name COM-CAT and went into operation in 1999.

With advice from an external advisory board of State business and academic leaders, and approval from the Department of Energy, we sought a private contractor through a competitive procurement process and secured Advanced Analytical X-Ray Services of Lemont, Illinois , in 2001. The company operated the beamline, but withdrew from the contract in June, 2003. Since that time, we have issued two requests for proposals seeking a new contractor but have failed to secure a compliant bidder. We attribute these difficulties to a couple of issues. First, while we believe that the original model to provide technical service support to industry, especially small business, is a valid one, it appears that the market will take some time and effort to build to the point where a self-sustaining business operation could be viable. Additionally, the tougher economic times of the last few years have made this challenge harder.

We have concluded that the most effective approach at this pre-competitive stage is for the APS facility to make outreach efforts to potential customers aimed at building the market to a point where a commercial operator could viably run a service as originally envisioned. Also, we wish to provide potential customers access to specialized techniques available on other beamlines. This reflects an overall evolution of the APS, which has occurred since COM-CAT was conceived, toward a larger number of optimized, dedicated beamlines as opposed to versatile capabilities. We have begun discussions to secure legal permission to engage in such activities while appropriately protecting the intellectual property of industrial customers. At the same time, as part of our tactical plan to optimize all of our beamlines, we will be creating a full-field imaging capability on Sector 32 (see the link below to our Future Directions workshop series). Many of the research groups interested in full-field imaging come from Illinois and have strong educational and outreach programs. For example, we will be exploring the possibility of virtual exhibits at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry and remote access to classrooms.

In the recent interim period while we were seeking improved solutions for small-business access, we have ensured that Sector 32 has been well utilized. The beamline has been extensively used for powder diffraction as a precursor to our dedicated bending magnet powder diffraction beamline at 11-BM. In addition, protein crystallography work has been carried out by LS-CAT, a consortium of regional universities, while they await the construction of sector 21. IMCA-CAT has also had access to the beamline during the renovation of their bending magnet line. Thanks go to Peter Lee in APS X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) for overseeing operations during this time. Because of the new imaging focus, Sector 32 will be associated with the microscopy group within XOR, led by our new recruit from Cornell, Qun Shen. The future for Sector 32 is bright, and we are grateful for the investments of the Sate of Illinois in adding to APS capabilities for the benefit of the region and the nation. These investments are paying off handsomely.

Future Directions workshops: http://www.aps.anl.gov/Future/
Contact: Murray Gibson, jmgibson@aps.anl.gov


2. DOE Supports Science and Technology Faculty, Students Affected by Katrina

Science and engineering students and faculty members from colleges and universities seriously impacted by Hurricane Katrina may be able to find support through the Temporary Educational Matching Program of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science.

Students and faculty members in science and engineering from institutions in Alabama , Louisiana and Mississippi will be eligible to participate in a program to match them with DOE-funded scientists at colleges and universities across the country. Some DOE laboratories may also participate by accepting student and faculty research participants in fields of critical interest to the department.

More info: Temporary Educational Matching Program web site, http://www.orau.gov/doeedrelief/
Professional organizations offering aid, identified by Argonne National Laboratory: http://www.anl.gov/Special/katrina_relief.html

3. Cheaper Silicon Found Effective for Solar Cells

Researchers using Advanced Photon Source and Advanced Light Source beamlines have shown that inexpensive silicon has the potential to be used for photovoltaic devices, commonly known as solar cells. In a new approach--whose findings were published online in Nature Materials (August 14, 2005)--the researchers used nanodefect engineering to control transition metal contamination in order to produce impurity-rich, performance-enhanced multicrystalline silicon material.

Full story: http://www.aps.anl.gov/Science/Highlights/2005/20050829.htm
Contact: Tonio Buonassisi, buonassi@socrates.berkeley.edu

4. Two APS Groups Awarded NIH Protein Structure Initiative Grants of More Than $100 Million

A total of more than $100 million has been awarded to groups that manage beamlines at the APS, as part of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). The PSI is a federal, university, and industry effort, funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health and aimed at reducing the costs and time needed to determine a three-dimensional (3-D) protein structure.

A $52.7-million grant provides funds for the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics , a large-scale center of the PSI headed by Argonne National Laboratory's Andrzej Joachimiak of the Biosciences Division and Director of the Structural Biology Center , which manages the beamlines at APS sector 19. Joachimiak is the principal investigator on the project. With this funding, Argonne researchers, in collaboration with biologists from around the world, will expand the information available to researchers for biomedically important proteins from humans and pathogens. For further information, see the links at the end of this story.

The second grant, of $48.5 million, provides five years of renewed funding for a consortium administered by SGX Pharmaceuticals (formerly Structural GenomiX), the New York Structural GenomiX Research Consortium (NYSGXRC). The NYSGXRC is an internationally-recognized, industry-academic structural genomics center that was established by Dr. Stephen K. Burley, SGX's chief scientific officer and senior vice president, research, during the pilot study phase of the PSI. Additional participants in the NYSGXRC include scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Columbia University , and the University of California at San Francisco . SGX will provide access to its state-of-the-art x-ray beamline at the APS for structure determination efforts.

A total of 10 grants have been awarded under the banner of the PSI. The near-term objective of the PSI is to reduce the costs and lessen the time it takes to determine a 3-D protein structure. The long-range goal of the PSI is to make the 3-D atomic-level structures of most proteins easily obtainable from knowledge of their corresponding DNA sequences. Expected benefits from the PSI include: structural descriptions to help researchers discover the functions of proteins, design experiments, and solve other key biomedical problems; faster identification of promising new structure-based medicines; better therapeutics for treating both genetic and infectious diseases; and development of technology and methodology for protein production and crystallography.

Protein Structure Initiative: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/psi
About MCSG grant: http://www.anl.gov/news-room/News/2005/news050701.html
MCSG web site: http://www.mcsg.anl.gov/
About NYSGXRC grant: http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/050701/laf067.html?.v=8
NYSGXRC web site: www.nysgxrc.org

5. Argonne Supercomputing Resource Available to APS Users

Argonne 's terascale computing cluster, Jazz, is available to support high-performance computation needs directly related to APS experiments in cases where the APS investigators do not have other computing resources available. This resource was made available to APS users for the first time last September, and several projects have resulted.

Review and scheduling for FY06 has begun, so proposals for projects requiring more than 1000 CPU hours should be submitted as soon as possible. However, proposals submitted later will still be considered for available time. Proposals for shorter projects may be submitted at any time. There is no cost to use Jazz, but users are requested to include an acknowledgment in related publications and to complete a brief annual project report.

Jazz is a 350-node computing cluster running 2.4 GHz Pentium Xeon processors connected by both Myrinet 2000 and Fast Ethernet networks. It is operated by Argonne 's Laboratory Computing Resource Center (LCRC). The Center staff are available for consultation on technical questions, training, and code modifications. More information about LCRC and Jazz, including system specifications and software packages available to all users, can be found at the web sites below.

Laboratory Computing Resource Center : http://www.lcrc.anl.gov
Guide for new users: http://www.lcrc.anl.gov/jazz/Documentation/NewUserGuide/
Contact: Ray Bair, Argonne LCRC, aps-request@lcrc.anl.gov

6. Two from HP-CAT win Balzan Prize

Russell J. Hemley and Ho-kwang (David) Mao have been awarded the 2005 International Balzan Foundation Prize for Mineral Physics. Both Hemley and Mao are affiliated with Carnegie Institution of Washington/Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center and the High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team, APS sector 16).

Full story: http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/APS_News/2005/20050908.htm

7. Student User Meets Nobel Laureates

Each year since 1951, Nobel Prize winners in chemistry, physics, physiology, and medicine have met in Lindau , Germany , with a select group of graduate students from across the world to discuss major issues of importance to their fields of research. APS user Rafael Jaramillo, a doctoral student in physics at the University of Chicago , was among the attendees of this summer's Lindau Meeting of Nobel Laureates and Students. All told, 720 students and 44 laureates from around the world attended the gathering.

A National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow, Jaramillo works in the laboratory of Thomas Rosenbaum, the James Wilson Distinguished Service Professor in Physics and Vice President for Research and for Argonne National Laboratory. He is studying the quantum-dominated magnetic properties of chromium at extreme conditions. "We are attempting to map out the low-temperature and high-pressure magnetic phase diagram of chromium," he explains. "We use charge and magnetic diffraction techniques combined with a cryogenic diamond anvil cell sample environment." At the APS he has worked at several beamlines, principally HP-CAT and XOR sector 4.

"The laureates were shining examples of how perseverance and self-confidence can pay off in the end," said Jaramillo. "To learn this lesson from such luminaries is immensely valuable to me."

Based on an article by Steve Koppes in the University of Chicago Chronicle , August 18, 2005, page 4, with additional information provided by Jaramillo. Full story at http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/050818/nobel.shtml


8. Summer Schools Train 117 Students

Summer at the APS has become "newcomer season"--this year more than ever with the addition of the XAFS summer school. Following are summaries of this year's schools, which introduced 117 students to the joys and sorrows of synchrotron science.

A glimpse of their life on the experiment floor is reflected in some photos from the XAFS School , each from a different beamline:

A brief summary of each school follows; web sites with information on past and future schools are given at the end of the article.

Neutron and X-ray Scattering School . The original APS summer school, the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering, hosts 60 students each year. Several students describe their experience in a recent article on Argonne 's home page: http://www.anl.gov/news-room/News/2005/X-ray_school050902.html.

XAFS School . The APS XAFS Scientific Interest Group hosted an XAFS Summer School in late July 2005. The four-day program covered all aspects of XAFS data collection and analysis, featuring classroom lectures by leading experts in the field, hands-on sample preparation, data collection at APS beamlines, and data analysis using state-of-the-art software. Students were encouraged to bring their own samples. Two afternoon and evenings of beam time at nine APS beamlines (5-BM-D, 9-BM, 12-BM, 13- BM, 20-BM, 33-BM, 10-ID, 18-ID, and 20-ID) were used for the school.

The XAFS School was aimed at new synchrotron users, young scientists, and established scientists new to XAFS. Although no synchrotron experience was required, many participants had collected XAFS data previously and enrolled in the school to gain a deeper understanding of the technique and to hone their data analysis skills.

The school had 43 students, including 17 graduate students, 10 post-docs, 8 academic researchers, and 8 government lab researchers. Though 10 of the students were from Argonne and Chicago-area universities, students also came from 18 U.S. states and from Canada , Great Britain , and Australia . Instructors came from the APS and Chicago-area universities.

Lecture notes and photos from the APS XAFS School have been posted online (see links at end of story).

ACA School . The third annual American Crystallographic Association Summer School in Macromolecular Crystallography was held at Illinois Institute of Technology and at the Advanced Photon Source from July 11-23, 2005. The fourteen enrollees attended lectures, participated in biochemical and computer laboratory experiments, and collected and processed diffraction data at the APS during the school. Five APS sectors (5, 8, 17, 19, and 22) participated in the school, providing a total of eight afternoons and evenings of intensive crystallographic data collection. Students came from all over the United States and from Canada . They stayed in the dorms at IIT and attended labs and lectures there and in the second week alternated between IIT and the APS for the more advanced portions of the school. The school for 2006 is scheduled for July 10-22.

Lecture notes, photos, contact info, and more:
--ACA school: http://acaschool.iit.edu/
--NX school: http://www.dep.anl.gov/nx/
--XAFS school: http://cars9.uchicago.edu/xafs_school/APS_2005/ ; contact: Matthew Newville, newville@cars.uchicago.edu


"New user" scholarships available for SNS/HFIR users meeting

Users of the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor will meet on October 11-13, 2005, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Support Center . Scholarships are available for the meeting and three associated "new user" workshops. These workshops, intended for researchers not familiar with neutron scattering, will focus on reflectometry, small-angle neutron scattering, and applications of neutrons to studying nanomaterials. Timetables for instrument readiness and power ramp-up will be provided, along with the process for proposing experiments.

Meeting web site: http://www.sns.gov/workshops/sns_hfir_users/index.shtml
Contact: Al Ekkebus, ekkebusae@sns.gov or 865-241-5644

Correction: BAC meeting date

The Beamtime Allocation Committee will meet on Tuesday, December 6 (not December 4 as reported in issue 33).

New menu unwrapped at 401 Grill

The 401 Grill introduced a new menu on September 7. Many favorites, including the soup of the day, chili, and the special of the day, will continue to be served. Additions include several new hot-dog variations, a shrimp wrapper, and new salads. So that the Grill can continue as a break-even operation, price increases will take effect with the new menu. We hope you continue to enjoy the convenience and service the Grill provides. The new menu isn't on the web yet, but information on the 401 Grill and other meal options is available under the "Visiting the APS" link on the APS web site.

Meal options and menus at Argonne : http://www.aps.anl.gov/About/Visiting/

Construction affects access from west

Users accustomed to entering the Argonne site from the west will experience some traffic disruptions in the near future.

--Short term: The Westgate guard post will be under construction from late September until early November. The gate will be open on weekdays for inbound traffic from 5:45 to 9 a.m. and for outbound traffic from 3:30 to 7:10 p.m. Northgate is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

--Long term: The portion of Rock Road between Kearney Road and LOM 438 (in front of the Center for Nanoscale Materials construction site) will be closed during the construction of LOM 437, from late September until construction is completed in summer 2006. To detour, take Westgate Road to Meridian Drive (the main intersection of the Argonne campus); turn right on Meridian and then turn right again on Rock Road . (Access to the LOM 438 truck lock and to the gas yard will not be impeded.)


Regularly scheduled technical meetings -- http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/Meetings/
Proposal system -- http://beam.aps.anl.gov/pls/apsweb/gup0005.start_page
Ops. Monthly meetings -- http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/Meetings/Monthly_Meetings/
User calendar (admin. meetings, reviews) -- http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/General_Reference/Calendar/

*New entry since last issue

October 4 Start of Run 2005-3
October 12 APS/Users' Operations Monthly Meeting
October 17 Review - Sector 5 (DND-CAT)
October 18 Review - Sector 8-BM and 24 (NE-CAT)
November 3 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
November 4 General/Partner User proposal deadline, Run 2006-1
November 9 APS/Users' Operations Monthly Meeting
November 11 Partner User Council Meeting
November 17 Proposal Review Panel Meeting
December 6 Beamtime Allocation Committee Meeting
December 21 End of Run 2005-3
*January 12 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
*January 13 Partner User Council Meeting
January 24-26 Scientific Advisory Committee meeting
January 25 Cross-Cut Review meeting
February 1 Start of Run 2006-1
March 10 General/Partner User proposal deadline, Run 2006-2
April 24 End of Run 2006-1
May 1-6 2006 Users Meeting
*~May 30 Start of Run 2006-2
July 14 General/Partner User proposal deadline, Run 2006-3
*~August 25 End of Run 2006-2
May 7-11 2007 Users Meeting