APS User News-at-a-Glance
Issue 31: April 6, 2005

Contents

Please bear with us; this is a long issue--there's just so much good stuff to say about both the past and the future!

1. Message from Murray
2. Users Meeting: Time's Almost Up
3. APSUO Elections Open April 15 - May 3
4. The First Radiation: A Brief Historical Account in Commemoration of the 10th Anniversary
5. Important Open Meeting April 15: Implementing Our "New Directions"
6. Introducing the Center for Nanoscale Materials at Argonne National Laboratory
7. Science Highlight: Zinc Deficiency Linked to Esophageal Cancer
8. Attention New Users & Young Scientists: XAFS Program Joins Summer School Line-up
9. Picosecond Pulses? Workshop on Possibilities, May 6

--Briefly Noted (scholarship to nanoscience workshop [April 15 deadline], special interest groups on interfaces and structural biology, operating mode change August 9-15, new ESH/QA coordinator, [web edition addition 4/11/05:] high magnetic field workshop)
--Dates and Deadlines

1. Message from Murray
(Contact Murray Gibson, jmgibson@aps.anl.gov)

In the last several years, the APS has inherited increased responsibility for beamline operations, so that today we operate the majority of beamlines for users in the physical sciences. While this has brought challenges, especially increased resource demands and the retention of successful external partners, one of the very positive aspects of this transformation is just beginning to show--the optimization of our beamlines. Associated with our recent scientific strategic planning for the APS, we have developed a tactical plan to produce a larger number of dedicated beamlines, and we will begin implementing this plan in the next few months. Our plan includes only APS beamlines, but in the context of capabilities made available by our partner Collaborative Access Teams. We expect our plan to be a working document that will evolve naturally with time into a plan that includes all beamlines at the APS. In our current plan, we will create fully dedicated sectors from our own beamlines, e.g., sectors for small-angle scattering and for high-energy x-ray scattering, to name only two. Although our plan has been developed in close consultation with users and with input from the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, there will be a special opportunity to get an overview on the plan and provide further input at an open meeting on Friday, April 15, from 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. in the APS auditorium (see item 5). Gabrielle Long, Associate Division Director who is responsible for APS beamline research and operations, will lead the discussion. Full execution of our tactical plan is constrained by limited funds for capital equipment and staffing, but we can begin today on one or two of the highest priority items with our existing resources. Perhaps the most important input from users will be on identifying the highest priority items. We will make the plan widely available to users in late April.

FACILITY NEWS

2. Users Meeting: Time's Almost Up
(Contact: Susan Strasser, strasser@aps.anl.gov)

Registration is now open for the Users Meeting, to be held May 2-6, 2005. Sign up by April 15 to avoid the late fee! Non-U.S. citizens , please register immediately to allow time for access permission to be confirmed. The main APS program will run all day Wednesday and Thursday morning. The registration fee includes access to nine workshops on Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday, as well as the Center for Nanoscale Materials meeting on Monday. A new workshop has been added (see item 9). Register at http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/Meeting/2005/Registration/.

Confirmed speakers for the APS program are:

3. APSUO Elections Open April 15 - May 3
(Contact: Susan Strasser, strasser@aps.anl.gov)

In conjunction with the Users Meeting, the APS Users Organization is electing four new representatives to its Steering Committee. Online voting will commence by April 15 and will close on May 3 at 5 p.m. The results will be announced at the Thursday morning session of the Users Meeting (May 4). Eight candidates have been nominated: Simon Billinge, Martine Duff, Millie Firestone, Barbara Golden, Malcolm Nicol, Joe Woicik, David Reis, and Gayle Woloschak. Brief biographies will be available online along with the voting form at http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/Meeting/2005/Elections/

4. The First Radiation: A Brief Historical Account in Commemoration of the 10th Anniversary
(Contact: Gopal Shenoy gks@aps.anl.gov)

March 26, 1995--it was indeed a memorable morning. Nothing suitable for a New York Times headline, and there was only the slightest semblance to a "March madness" sports event. There were no big surprises, no major breakdowns, no major delays, nothing . it was "simply" a well executed experiment to store a 4.5-GeV electron beam and to demonstrate the generation of synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet. However, for all the staff and the technicians gathered in the Control Room and at the 1-BM beamline, it was a historical event. When the first trace of the beam was recorded, everyone cheered with a sense of fulfillment that their hard work, as a member of the project and as an individual contributor, had borne fruit.

Champagne corks popped, but all were too tired from the nonstop activities of the past 48 hours to savor the bouquet.

This glorious event was the culminating moment of years of dedicated work. It had its beginnings on overcast days in the fall of 1983. Yanglai Cho (High Energy Physics), Edwin Westbrook (Biology), and I (Material Science Division) gathered in Kenneth Kliewer's office (Associate Laboratory Director for Physical Sciences) to discuss the opportunity that perhaps lay ahead of us at Argonne. Soon the accelerator groups (HEP, PHY), synchrotron radiation group (MSD), and biologists began to meet regularly in Building 362. Yang wrote the first Light Source Note [1] on the 6-GeV storage ring design parameters, and Jim Viccaro (MSD) and I produced a preliminary guide for users [2] describing the undulator radiation characteristics. A major workshop was held at Argonne to establish the scientific case for the 6-GeV Synchrotron Source [3]. The first Conceptual Design for the 6-GeV Synchrotron X-ray Source (GSX) was ready in 1986 [4]. The word "top-up" was coined and included as a part of the full-energy injection design. The first test of a prototype of Undulator-A on the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source was planned in 1986 [5]. The storage ring design was updated in 1987 to reflect an energy upgrade to 7 GeV in order to provide for broader undulator tunability [6]. Because of uncertainties of funding, the small staff performing the R&D in support of the design put their careers on an uncharted path with many risks; luckily it all paid off in FY 1990 and we became a part of the largest DOE construction project, the Advanced Photon Source. David Moncton, with his broad scientific experience at various synchrotron and neutron facilities, had already moved from Exxon to assume the leadership of the APS.

During the next five years the staff increased from about 50 to over 400. They followed their heart, pursued their intuition and creativity, dedicated themselves to unprecedented teamwork, and faced new technical challenges, with only one goal--an Advanced Photon Source to meet the future science needs of its user community. The APS staff, users, technicians, and secretaries were all integral part of a cohesive organization that had innumerable success stories. Major accomplishments and milestones were recorded in research, design, procurement, construction, installation, commissioning, and safety. The APS project was subjected to an astounding number of DOE reviews and audits. The net result was a successful on-time completion of an extraordinary project well within the budgeted funds, delivering more scope than in the DOE baseline. The accomplishment of the APS organization was broadly recognized as a model for successful project planning, delivery, and management. It is kudos to APS personnel that the very first attempt to store the electrons and deliver the x-ray radiation to 1-BM beamline was successful, with over a million subsystems of the APS complex performing with the specified precision. Their ultimate satisfaction of the APS personnel came from the knowledge that they were integral part of the future user science. To each one of them, a thank-you from a user was often far more meaningful than accolades about their personal achievements.

Alan Schriesheim, then the Director of Argonne National Laboratory, had remarked repeatedly over nearly a dozen years that we "would open a bottle of original Perrier Jouët's champagne when we had the first radiation"--and that was (almost) exactly what happened on the morning of March 26, 1995.

[1] Preliminary Design Parameters of 6 GeV Storage Ring Lattice for Synchrotron Light Source (October 1984), Y. Cho, LS-1
http://www.aps.anl.gov/Facility/Technical_Publications/lsnotes/ls1.pdf

[2] An Overview of the Characteristics of the 6-GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source: A Preliminary Guide for Users (October 1985), G. K. Shenoy and P. J. Viccaro, ANL-85-69

[3] Report of the Workshop on the Scientific Case for a 6-GeV Synchrotron Source, Argonne (December 1985), US DOE Publication

[4] 6 GeV Synchrotron X-ray Source - Conceptual Design Report (February 1986), ANL-86-8

[5] Cornell Undulator/Summary (August 1986), G. K. Shenoy and P. J. Viccaro, LS-74
http://www.aps.anl.gov/Facility/Technical_Publications/lsnotes/ls74.pdf

[6] Ring Energy Selection and Extra Long Straight Sections for the Advanced Photon Source (April 1987), G. Brown, Y. Cho, J. Hastings, S. Krinsky, D. E. Moncton, G. K. Shenoy (Chair), P. J. Viccaro, ANL-87-14

[7] 7 GeV Advanced Photon Source - Conceptual Design Report (April 1987), ANL-87-15

(References are available at the APS Library.)

5. Important Open Meeting April 15: Implementing Our "New Directions"
(Contact: Gabrielle Long, XOR, gglong@aps.anl.gov)

After a year of dreaming big about the future of the APS, it's time to begin translating talk into reality. This step is the focus of an important half-day open meeting to be held April 15, 2005, from 2:00 to 5:00 p.m. in the 402 Auditorium.

The APS Experimental Facilities Division, the APS Users Organization, and the Partner User Council invite the entire APS community to attend this meeting. The purpose of the meeting is to have an open review and discussion of recent strategic planning at the APS and approaches for implementation.

The agenda will include presentations of initial plans for implementing dedicated facilities on the experiment floor and for joining the strong scientific facilities of the independent Collaborative Access Teams with the plans for X-ray Operations and Research. The goal is to develop a common plan for the APS that includes all activities on the floor.

Web edition addition (4/11/05): The agenda and tactical plan are now available at http://www.aps.anl.gov/Future/Planning/.

6. Introducing the Center for Nanoscale Materials at Argonne National Laboratory
(Contact: Eric Isaacs, isaacs@anl.gov)

In a major step in the convergence of x-ray science and nanoscience, the Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26 took first beam in the first optical enclosure on March 15, 2005. This new beamline is one of many exciting capabilities within the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), the newest user facility at Argonne National Laboratory (http://nano.anl.gov). Many of the CNM's facilities are already open to users, and the upcoming users meeting at Argonne will showcase recent results.

The Nanoprobe represents the next step in a trend already well in evidence around the APS ring: that synchrotron x-rays are a perfect tool for unraveling tough questions about the strange things that happen at the nanometer scale. The Nanoprobe will have a spatial resolution 30 nm or better, the highest of any hard x-ray microscopy beamline in the world. It will offer fluorescence, diffraction, and transmission imaging in the spectral range of 3 to 30 keV, making it a valuable tool for studying nanomaterials and nanostructures, and especially embedded structures.

Construction of the new CNM building at sector 26 is well underway, but even before it is completed, APS users can begin taking advantage of a range of other techniques that can complement and extend synchrotron experiments. "The CNM is a critical asset for bridging the materials, chemical, biological, and computational sciences," says Eric Isaacs, CNM Director. "It will allow users to take full advantage of advanced characterization tools at Argonne : x-rays at the APS, electrons at the Electron Microscopy Center, neutrons from the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, and the teraflop computation abilities of the Jazz cluster."

The CNM currently works with users in the following areas:

More information on capabilities and staff contacts in these areas is available at
http://nano.anl.gov/facilities/early_access_capabilities.html.

These facilities and research programs are accessible to independent researchers through a peer-reviewed proposal process. The CNM staff welcome discussions of potential proposals, especially those exploring novel applications of capabilities or involving more than one area. The next proposal deadline is June 15, 2005. Details of the user access process are given at the CNM web site, http://nano.anl.gov.

For APS users interested in exploring how CNM capabilities might help advance their work, two excellent opportunities for information gathering are just around the corner. The first is the joint APS/CNM Users Meeting May 2-6 (see item 2). The CNM meeting and poster session on May 2 is followed on May 3 by workshops on nanoscience of interest to both APS and CNM users:

The second opportunity is a joint meeting combining the Applied Diamond Conference and Nanocarbon 2005, which will be held at Argonne National Laboratory May 15-19, 2005, one week after the APS/CNM Users Meeting (http://nano.anl.gov/ADC2005/default.htm).

7. Science Highlight: Zinc Deficiency Linked to Esophageal Cancer
(Contact: Christian Abnet, abnetc@mail.nih.gov)

By using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at beamline 2-BM, researchers from the National Cancer Institute have found a link between zinc deficiency and risk of developing an often-fatal esophageal cancer. Zinc was suspected on the basis of rodent studies, but available methods for determining zinc levels in humans were not sensitive enough. The fluorescence method, made possible by the intensity and small size of the APS beam, permits direct measurement of elemental concentrations in millimeter-sized biopsy tissues that were sectioned to 5 microns thick . The team measured zinc, copper, iron, nickel, and sulfur levels in archived tissue samples from people who participated in a longitudinal dietary study in Linzhou , China , a region where zinc deficiency is prevalent. The full story is at http://www.aps.anl.gov/Science/Highlights/2005/20050216.htm.

8. Attention New Users & Young Scientists: XAFS Program Joins Summer School Line-up

This summer, young scientists--and other new synchrotron users--have several avenues for getting guided hands-on experience that can enhance their future experiments at APS.

In addition to the well-established tradition of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering (for graduate students), APS will also host another ACA Summer School in Macromolecular Crystallography and--new this year--the XAFS Data Collection and Analysis Summer School. Dates and contact information are listed at the end of this article.

The newest school, on XAFS, is aimed at new synchrotron users and young scientists. The four-day workshop will provide a broad introduction to the collection and analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data. It includes classroom lectures given by leading experts, hands-on sample preparation and data collection at APS bending magnet and insertion device beamlines, and instruction in the use of data analysis software. The lectures will cover topics ranging from the basic physics of x-ray absorption, sample preparation and data collection, and basic principles of data analysis. Participants will collect real data during the beamline practical and learn to analyze that data during the data analysis laboratories. Four or five "auditing" slots will also be available for people have already collected their own XAFS data and would like some help with the analysis; registration is required for auditing. The following APS beamlines will be participating in the course: 5-BM, 9-BM, 12-BM, 13-BM, 20-BM, 33-BM, 10-ID, 18-ID, and 20-ID. Workshop organizers are Julie Cross of APS, Matthew Newville of CARS/University of Chicago , and Simon Bare of UOP.

Summer Programs at the APS

 

Class Dates

Register By:

More Information

Protein Crystallography

July 18 - 30

July 1

http://acaschool.iit.edu/

XAFS

July 26 - 29

 

June 10

Julie Cross
(jox@aps.anl.gov)
Matthew Newville
(newville@cars.uchicago.edu)
Simon Bare
(Simon.Bare@UOP.com)

Neutron/X-ray

August 14 - 28

May 13

http://www.dep.anl.gov/nx/

9. Picosecond Pulses? Workshop on Possibilities, May 6
(Contact: Dennis Mills, dmm@aps.anl.gov)

A workshop has been added to the Users Meeting, focused on the generation and use of picosecond pulses at the APS. It will run all day May 6; the morning session will address accelerator issues, while the afternoon session will focus on optics and user science. Please register through the APS Users Meeting web site (registration is free if you are not attending the rest of the Users Meeting): http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/Meeting/2005/Registration/.

BRIEFLY NOTED

--Early career researcher in nanoscience? Apply by April 15 for workshop scholarship
Scholarships are available to young scientists for travel to a workshop on "X-rays and Neutrons: Essential Tools for Nanoscience Research," to be held June 16-18, 2005, in Washington , D.C. Applications are due April 15. More information is at http://www.sns.gov/workshops/nni_05/.

The workshop is in support of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). Graduate students or postdoctoral fellows not more than five years past receipt of doctoral degree at U.S. colleges and universities are eligible. Abstracts may address one of two questions: (1) nanoscience challenges: what are the most significant future challenges in my research in nanoscience that may be addressed by developments in x-ray and neutron scattering techniques? or (2) new scattering techniques: what significant new capabilities can the developments in scattering techniques that I am working on provide for research at the nanoscale?

--More special interest groups: Interface scattering and structural biology
In response to the article in issue 30 of User News, we learned about two new special interest groups. The Interface Scattering Focus Group met for the first time on March 15; future meetings will be on the third Tuesday of each month in the 438 LOM conference room. Contact Paul Zschack at UNI-CAT for more information (zschack@anl.gov). A structural biology group has been meeting for a few months; contact Steve Ginell of SBC-CAT for more information (ginell@nl.gov). Other special interest groups are listed on the web at
http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/Communications/Scientific_Interest_Groups/.

-- Change to scheduled operating mode for August 9-15
"Higher current" operation had been proposed for the interval August 9-15. On March 8 it was announced that this period will revert to 24-bunch top-up mode (low emittance).

-- Barkalow named ESH/QA Coordinator for Scientific User Facilities Directorate
Effective April 4, 2005, Thomas Barkalow will be the new ESH/QA coordinator for the Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Directorate at Argonne , which includes both the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS). During his twelve years at Argonne , Tom has led or participated in many ESH-related assessments of both accelerator and nuclear facilities. Tom graduated from the University of Missouri in 1974 and received a B.S. degree in Nuclear Engineering. Prior to coming to Argonne , he worked with the DOE Chicago Field Office and the Tennessee Valley Authority on complex nuclear-safety-related issues.

-- Web edition addition (4/11/05): High Magnetic Field Workshop
A workshop on "Probing Matter at High Magnetic Fields with X-Rays and Neutrons" will be held at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida, May 10-12, 2005. It is being organized jointly by the APS, the Spallation Neutron Source, and the Magnet Lab. The program of the workshop is at http://xraysandneutrons.magnet.fsu.edu.

11. Administrative Dates and Deadlines

Regularly scheduled technical meetings -- http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/Meetings/
Proposal system -- http://beam.aps.anl.gov/pls/apsweb/gup0005.start_page
Ops. Monthly meetings -- http://www.aps.anl.gov/News/Meetings/Monthly_Meetings/
User calendar (admin. meetings, reviews) -- http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/General_Reference/Calendar/

*New entry since last issue

2005
April 14 APS/Users' Operations Monthly Meeting
April 20 End of Run 2005-1
May 2-6 Users Meeting
May 3 Partner User Council Meeting
May 5 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
*May 13 Application deadline, neutron & x-ray summer schoo.
May 23-26 DOE facility review of APS
June 1 Start of Run 2005-2
June 2 APS/Users' Operations Monthly Meeting
*June 10 Application deadline, XAFS summer school
*July 1 Application deadline, crystallography summer school
July 13 APS/Users' Operations Monthly Meeting
July 14 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
July 15 Partner User Council Meeting
*July 18 - 30 Crystallography summer school
*July 26 - 29 XAFS summer school
*August 14 - 28 Neutron & x-ray summer school
August 25 End of Run 2005-2
September 15 Review - Sector 9 (CMC/XOR)
September 16 Review - Sector 6 (MU-CAT)
October 17 Review - Sector 5 (DND-CAT)
October 18 Review - Sector 8-BM and 24 (NE-CAT)
October 27 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
October 28 Partner User Council Meeting
2006
May 1-6 2006 Users Meeting