Science & Research Highlights 2000

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APS-based Technologies Garner Three R&D-100 Awards

SEPTEMBER 29, 2000

Three technologies developed for use at APS have won R&D 100 awards for the year 2000. The awards are given annually by R&D Magazine to the 100 most significant technical products of the year.
Schematic drawing of an x-ray microbeam experiment.

Materials Analysis using New X-ray Microbeams

OCTOBER 17, 2000

Materials ranging from massive steel girders to the microscopic aluminum wires in computer chips are made of grains-tiny crystals with diameters measured in millionths of a meter (microns). If scientists could "see" these individual grains, they could determine their orientation, as well as the effects of stress and chemical activity on them. They might also be able to determine how to make circuits in microelectronic components smaller and faster and find out to what extent grains of a superconducting material mimic the alignment of the substrate on which the material is grown, which is essential to the design of effective high-temperature superconductors. Scientists are now able to study the fine details of grain behavior in materials, thanks to new x-ray beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a leader in efforts to develop microbeams at the APS.
Figure by Robert Irion depicting Mossbauer effect.

Setting the Standard for Atomic-Scale Measurements

OCTOBER 11, 2000

X-ray beams from the Advanced Photon Source and the Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg have been used to set a potential new standard of length for short distances, based on radiation from the excited nuclei of iron atoms. Further improvements may make this standard an important tool for probing the structure of matter, where physicists must gauge the separations between nuclei with an accuracy of millionths of an angstrom.
Two-dimensional x-ray pattern from the dorsal longitudinal muscle of resting (wings folded) Drosophila melanogaster.

Using X-ray Beams to Study Indirect Flight Muscle from Drosophila Melanogaster

OCTOBER 11, 2000

Researchers have applied high-brilliance x-ray beams from the Bio-CAT undulator insertion-device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source to small-angle x-ray diffraction and obtained high-quality, <i>in vivo</i> patterns from the flight muscles of live fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). This new experimental system facilitates investigation of the relation between molecular structure and muscle function in living organisms.
Models of the molecular complex of the antibody immunoglobin-E (gE) and its high-affinity receptor.

Structure of the Fc Fragment of Human IgE Bound to Its Receptor

OCTOBER 3, 2000

Researchers from Northwestern University and the Harvard Medical School have identified the structure of the interaction complex of two molecules, the antibody immunoglobin-E (IgE) and its high-affinity receptor, that are central to the allergic response in humans. This work was carried out APS beamline 5-ID, which is operated by the E.I. Du pont de Nemours &amp; Co.-Northwestern University-The Dow Chemical Company Collaborative Access Team.
Contour plot showing the lobe-shaped pattern of diffuse x-ray scattering at T = 300 K around the (0,0,8), (0,0,10), and (0,0,12) reflections.

Charge Melting & Polaron Collapse in LA1.2SR1.8MN207

JUNE 28, 2000

Recent studies carried out on the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team's beamline 1-ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source provide important new insights into the relation of polarons to collossal magnetoresistance (CMR), which is of great interest to both basic science, which has led to CMR discoveries such as charge and orbital ordering, and applied science, where the potential for technological applications is significant.
The two astrolabes studied, fully assembled. Left: M-33a (Adler Planetarium, from the Mensing Collection), and (right) DW0595 (Harvard University, from the David P. Wheatland Collection).

The Mystery of Ioannes Bos: The Metal Speaks - X-Ray Studies of Astrolabes

JUNE 28, 2000

Using a focused, monochromatic beam of high-photon-energy x-rays from the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team beamline 1-BM at the Advanced Photon Source, researchers performed metallurgical analyses on two astrolabes: M-33a (Adler Planetarium, from the Mensing Collection), and DW0595 (Harvard University, from the David P. Wheatland Collection). These instruments are both signed "Ioannes Bos, 24 March 1597." Results indicate that the composition and microstructure of the main components of M-33a are consistent with the 1597 date, while those of DW0595 reveal a much more recent origin.