December 5, 1994


5.1 Preliminary Beamline Design: General Guidelines

The Preliminary Design of the beamline represents an approximately 30% design level of each of the beamline components. This level of design permits the CAT to develop cost estimates for the construction of the beamline, as well as a realistic timeline for completion of the construction tasks. A committee from the APS has been charged with reviewing the Preliminary Design Reports and has established the evaluation criteria described below.

The Preliminary Beamline Report is expected to expand upon the Conceptual Design Report in the following areas:

  • Beamline Layout
  • Component Design
  • Work Breakdown Structure
  • Cost and Schedule
  • Additional Operational Requirements
  • Safety Analysis
  • R&D Plans

We suggest that the CATs ensure that each vendor has a valid QA and QC capability before a contract is signed.

If an advanced plan for procurement is to be developed, the procurement department should be involved in this activity to ensure that the schedules are realistic. This also permits the CAT to discuss issues related to vendor contracts, such as the use of sole-source or fixed-price contracts, with its procurement personnel.

5.2 Preliminary Beamline Design: Specific Guidance and Review Criteria

5.2.1 Beamline Layout

Show the layout of the beamline on the APS defined sector and include all its components. AutoCAD drawings of the sectors have been previously provided to the CATs. Include the assignment of space for electronics racks, working tables, etc. Indicate the overall plan for beamline vacuum; e.g., identify high vacuum and UHV segments. Demonstrate how this plan complies with the APS vacuum policy. Refer to APS Technical Bulletin ANL/APS/TB-9 (February 1993) for information on sector layout, utility specifications, and egress considerations. Indicate your overall plan for survey and alignment. Give a brief overview (in a few paragraphs) of the scientific program to be carried out on this beamline.

Criterion - An overall beamline/sector layout has been provided showing beamline components, personnel safety system components, support equipment (racks, etc.), and furniture.

Criterion - The overall beamline layout and components are compatible with the intended science. The following will be considered in the evaluation:

  • The compatibility of the selected insertion device(s) with the scientific program.
  • Choice of monochromator and mirrors and their placement.
  • Clear identification of where white beams and monochromatic beams will be propagated.
  • CAT-specific science issues.

Criterion - Life Safety Code compliant egress aisles are indicated on the sector layout. Designs shall provide for aisles free of obstructions with 400' maximum distance to an exit and 50' maximum dead-end pockets. The location of beamline duck-unders shall be identified.

Criterion - Some indication of the survey and alignment plan is provided. If such a plan is included in the Preliminary Design Report, then it will be reviewed. If one is not included, then the report should include reference to the APS beamline survey plans. The following items will be considered for comment:

  • Installation and alignment procedures and tolerances.
  • Support system stability.

5.2.2 Component Designs

We encourage the designers to use any of the applicable Standard Component drawings currently available from the APS Design Exchange. Both standard and non-standard beamline components will also be reviewed. Safety is of primary concern; however, advice and guidance will be given to the user with respect to functionality and quality assurance. Present drawings of non-standard components in sufficient detail to allow the reviewer to evaluate the functionality of the design and the adequacy of the space allocated for the components.

Criterion - Each component is identified as being in one of the following categories:

  • APS standard components that have been adopted without modification.
  • APS standard components that have been modified (explain modifications).
  • Non-standard components.

Criterion - Adequately detailed drawings are provided for all non-standard components.

Criterion - Appropriate specifications are provided for non-standard components. Consider design aspects such as:

Thermal engineering:

    • Thermal load on the component (identify tools used in the analysis).
    • Cooling system design and analysis (identify tools used in the analysis).
    • Material properties assumed and safety margins allowed.

Mechanical design:

    • Motion structure design and reliability.
    • Motion/vacuum joints identified clearly.
    • Fail-safe design.
    • Motion control and interlock interface.

Radiation compatibility of materials.

Criterion - The Preliminary Design is in compliance with the APS vacuum policy at the component level. Non-compliance with APS vacuum policy recommendations requires justification. The following items will be considered in the evaluation:

  • Vacuum requirement for the component.
  • Vacuum structure design.
  • Material/vacuum compatibility.
  • Coolant/vacuum joints identified clearly.
  • Vacuum materials identified.

Criterion - Optical apertures and shielding apertures are shown to be adequate. The following items will be considered in the evaluation:

  • Apertures are consistent with the beamline optical design, ray-tracing, and general layout.
  • A reasonable safety margin exists (especially for white beam).

5.2.3 Work Breakdown Structure

A detailed Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) should be developed to account for each of the components that make up the beamline. For the purposes of this review, beamline components are instruments such as filters, slits, masks, mirrors, monochromators, windows, beam position monitors, etc. Attachment 1 presents a typical WBS for a generic insertion device beamline.

Criterion - A work breakdown structure, consistent with the design and broken down to the component level, is provided.

5.2.4 Preliminary Cost Estimates and Schedules

This portion of the Preliminary Design Review is intended to ensure that costs are reasonably estimated and that the completion schedule is realistic. Indicate your plan for including a contingency allowance in your cost estimates (for example, adding contingency as a line item or building it into individual component costs).

A cost estimate for the construction of each WBS item should be developed. Also, detailed schedules for each of the construction activities should be prepared for every WBS item, based on the information at hand. The total construction cost will be the sum of the following:

  1. Effort costs for engineering design. These activities are usually done by the scientific and engineering staff, design staff, and drafting staff.
  2. Cost of procurement and/or fabrication of components. In developing schedules for procurement of components requiring a long lead time, an advanced plan for procurement should be developed.
  3. Effort costs for assembly, inspection, testing, and installation (integration) of the entire beamline on the APS Experiment Hall floor, and for the checkout of the beamline. The work on inspection, testing, and checkout is typically done by scientists and/or engineers, while the assembly and installation work is usually done by support staff, technicians, etc.
  4. Cost of utilities (power cables, water pipes, valves, gas manifolds, communication cables, connectors, utility and cable trays, tray supports, etc.), including the costs of installation.

The schedule of work should include, for each relevant element of the WBS, the proposed or actual starting date and a completion date for each of the following activities: final engineering design, procurements, fabrication tasks, assembly of components and their testing, installation (or integration) of the beamline, and checkout of the beamline. The last two activities are carried out in the APS Experiment Hall. We strongly recommend the use of project management software, which facilitates establishment of milestones for the activities and measurement of their progress. Users can also use such software for resource management and leveling.

Criterion - Cost estimates and schedules are provided and are consistent with the WBS.

Criterion - The engineering design effort costs have been included.

Criterion - The cost estimates for procurements and fabrications are reasonable. Include the costs for:

  • Mechanical Components
  • Experimental Stations
  • Transports and Supports
  • Personnel Safety System and Equipment Protection System
  • Utilities
  • Survey and Alignment
  • Sum of above for each beamline

Criterion - The schedule is reasonable. In addition to giving starting and completion dates for the above-mentioned activities associated with each WBS element, the beamline designer should also consider developing schedules for the following activities:

  • Survey and alignment (at the site).
  • Final beamline design and safety documentation and review.
  • Safety/Interlocks documentation and installation.
  • Construction readiness documentation and review.
  • Commissioning readiness documentation and review.
  • Operational readiness documentation and review.

5.2.5 Additional Operational Requirements

It is important to plan the cost and schedule for finishing out the space assigned to the CAT in the Laboratory/Office Modules (LOMs). This includes office furniture, office partitions, and special equipment in the CAT laboratories. A separate document, entitled A Guide to the APS Lab/Office Modules, was sent to all CAT Directors in December 1993. Copies of this document are available upon request from the APS User Office.

In addition, any special requirements for the operation of the beamline equipment should be indicated. APS Technical Bulletin ANL/APS/TB-9 (February 1993) describes the standard utilities provided by the APS in each of the sectors. Examples of special needs in the sector and in the LOM include local air-conditioning capability, local ventilation, exhaust for specialty or toxic gases, radioactive sample or chemical handling capability, electrical loads greater than the APS standard supplies, special telecommunication requirements, etc.

Criterion - Any special requirements for the operation of the beamline equipment are indicated. The special requirements will be reviewed for consistency with beamline needs and compatibility with the installed conventional facilities. Guidance will be sought from APS Conventional Facilities personnel as appropriate.

Criterion - If white beam is to be propagated in an experimental station, a preliminary analysis of ozone production and the general plan for mitigation is provided.

Criterion - Cost and schedule information is provided for LOM build-out. The beamline preliminary design can be approved prior to the submission of this material. If provided, this information will be transmitted to the LOM review committee. The User Technical Interface is the users' point of contact for arranging for LOM reviews and construction.

5.2.6 Preliminary Safety Analysis

A preliminary safety analysis for the operation of the beamline should be provided. This analysis should address shielding requirements, safety interlock logic for the Personnel Safety System and Equipment Protection System, and all special needs related to beamline operations, such as the capabilities to handle hazardous gases, radioactivity, bio-hazards, etc. The shielding requirements applicable to most beamline configurations are discussed in detail in Guide to Beamline Radiation Shielding Design at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL/APS/TB-7.

Criterion - The shielding design is in compliance with APS shielding standards. Items to be reviewed include the following:

  • Experimental stations and beam transports meet APS shielding specifications.
  • Shielding designs that are not APS standard shielding designs are identified and an analysis of the shielding is provided.
  • Complete anamorphic ray tracing analysis for bremsstrahlung is provided.
  • Analysis of shielding designs is provided for special insertion devices, if any.
  • Analysis of shielding designs is provided for white-beam transports, if applicable.
  • Radiation analysis is provided for non-high-vacuum beamline components, if any.

Criterion - A preliminary safety analysis is provided for the beamline Personnel Safety System. The APS will install and maintain the beamline Personnel Safety System. The analysis is intended to provide feedback, early in the design process, on the design of the system and its ability to meet the user's needs and APS requirements. The Preliminary Design Report shall include the following:

  • For each mode of operation (e.g., personnel have access to the FOE, monochromatic beam in station B, etc.), the necessary configuration of beamline safety components (e.g., which shutters are closed, have the experimental station interlocks been satisfied, etc.) are defined.
  • The beamline layout clearly identifies the location of beamline Personnel Safety System components (e.g., interlocks).
  • User equipment that has the potential to interfere with or block access to Personnel Safety System components (e.g., audio alarms, visual alarms, station search buttons, interlock switches, etc.) is identified.
  • Specific problems and concerns are identified.

Criterion - A preliminary safety analysis is provided for the beamline Equipment Protection System. The safety analysis should demonstrate that the EPS design is compatible with the APS Equipment Protection System logic, and in compliance with the APS policy on white-beam beamline components.

The Preliminary Design Report shall include the following:

  • Identification of the components to be interlocked.
  • A preliminary block diagram of the Equipment Protection System.
  • A preliminary description of the computer/controller configuration and interface to APS system plans.
  • Identification of any special problems or concerns.

Criterion - A preliminary safety analysis is provided for program-specific hazards. Program-specific hazards such as the need to handle hazardous gases, radioactive materials, and biohazards should be identified and preliminary plans for mitigating the hazards should be addressed. Guidance will be sought from outside the committee as needed.

5.2.7 R&D plans

Many CATs are planning to carry out instrumentation R&D in preparation for the design and construction of certain beamline components. The Preliminary Design Report should therefore include an R&D plan and a list of R&D milestones and schedules. CATs should ensure consistency between R&D schedules and construction schedules; that is, the R&D milestones for a component should be met well before the activities related to its construction begin.

Criterion - R&D schedules are consistent with construction schedules.

Attachment 1


Generic CAT Work Breakdown Structure


Generic ID Beamline

5.1.1 First Optics Enclosure User Filters Collimator Support Structure ID White Beam H & V Slits Support Structure ID Double Crystal Monochromator Integral Shutter and Stops Support Structure Dual W/M Window Vacuum Components (Bellows, Valves, Pumps, Gauges, etc.) Penetration Tube (Bremsstrahlung Shielded) First Optics Enclosure Hutch
5.1.2 X-Ray Scattering Station 6" I.D. Pipe & Stand Dual W/M Window Integral Shutter & Stops Support Structure Vacuum Components (Bellows, Valves, Pumps, Gauges, etc.) Penetration Tube (Bremsstrahlung Shielded) X-Ray Scattering Hutch Shielded Cabinet (2) Support Structure Spectrometer Slits Detectors NIM Electronics Additional Equipment Data Acquisition/Motion Controls
5.1.3 End Station Mono Beam H & V Slits Support Structure Shielded Cabinet 4" Shielded Transport (2) 4" I.D. Shielded Bellows (1) Mono PBPM Support Structures Window 4" I.D. Shielded Cabinet Penetration Tube (Bremsstrahlung Shielded) ID Diagnostic Station Hutch Data Acquisition/Motion Controls Support Structure Diffractometer Detectors and NIM electronics
5.1.4 Personnel Safety Interface
5.1.5 Equipment Protection Interface
5.1.6 Beamline Controls
5.1.7 Survey and Alignment
5.1.8 Power and Utilities