Inside this Issue

7-GeV Particle Beam Enters Storage Ring

On the morning of February 20, 1995, at 5:53 a.m., a 7-GeV particle beam was injected into the APS storage ring, signaling the start of the storage-ring commissioning period. Electrons at 7 GeV were injected into two storage-ring sectors, and beam-loss studies were performed. During these studies, radiation surveys were carried out with the 7-GeV beam carefully missteered so as to thoroughly probe the tunnel shielding. These beam missteering tests will continue sector by sector until all front-end ratchet penetrations have been probed for radiation integrity. The beam missteering measurements will then resume, with the focus turning to an evaluation of all non-standard shielding configurations associated with penetrations around the ring. Of particular interest will be straight penetrations that allow line-of-sight access to the tunnel.

Storage ring receiving one of many inspections in preparation for commissioning.

The high-energy transfer line carries the 7-GeV particle beam out of the booster synchrotron and into the APS storage ring.

APS Hosts SRI '95, X-Ray Centennial, and Seventh APS Users Meeting

The week of October 16-20, 1995, will provide an excellent opportunity for synchrotron users to take part in a comprehensive array of workshops, lectures, and other events pertaining to synchrotron radiation research. A symposium commemorating the centennial of the discovery of x-rays will begin the week. This celebration will be followed by the Seventh Users Meeting for the APS, which will include concurrent science applications and instrumentation workshops, election of new APS Users Organization (APSUO) Steering Committee members, and the traditional Users Meeting banquet.

The week will conclude with SRI '95, which will focus on new discoveries in synchrotron radiation instrumentation. A vendor exhibit, synchrotron facility displays, poster sessions, and an APS tour are also planned. All meetings will be held in the new APS Conference Center, immediately adjacent to the APS central laboratory/office building. A first meeting announcement will be distributed to all individuals in the APS user database. Additional copies can be obtained by contacting the APS User Office by telephone (708/252-5089), fax (708/252-9250), or e-mail (

Beamline Controls Committee Facilitates CAT Efforts

The CAT Beamline Controls and Data Acquisition Committee is a working group that seeks to coordinate CAT efforts in these areas. All CATs are invited to send representatives to its meetings, which will normally be held on the second Wednesday of every other month, with the next meeting planned for mid-April. Communications are handled through an APS listserver. To subscribe, send the following message to Subscribe beamline_controls. Messages are archived and available on the World Wide Web at URL: For further information, contact Committee Chair, Mark Rivers, at

The goals of the committee include establishing voluntary hardware and software standards in key control and data acquisition areas, sharing information on hardware and software issues by means of an exchange on the World Wide Web, and working jointly with vendors regarding hardware and software development projects. Accomplishments to date include the agreement by all CATs to use the EPICS control system as the basis of their beamline controls and data acquisition systems as much as possible, the preparation of a draft common data-file format, preparation of standards for stepper-motor cabling, and development of design specifications for several new hardware devices. The committee works closely with the APS Beamline Controls and Data Acquisition Group, headed by Tim Mooney. His group has arranged for the distribution of EPICS software to CATs and is responsible for the specification of beamline hardware standards and development of many new EPICS features.

Construction Progress

Two laboratory/office modules (LOMs)-LOM 431 and LOM 432-are now partially occupied. DND-CAT, which moved into the laboratory areas of LOM 432 during the Christmas holidays, is now moving into its office spaces. LOM 431, which is to house SRI-CAT and provide temporary space for the APS User Office, also has a few residents. The remaining four of six LOMs to be built as part of the first phase of the APS construction project are scheduled for completion at phased intervals. LOM 434 is now ready for beneficial occupancy. LOM 435 will be next, with an anticipated occupancy date in April. LOM 433 will be completed by July, and the sixth LOM, 438, should be ready in late August.

Construction on the central laboratory/office building (CLO) remains on schedule, with completion planned for October 1995.

A contract to build the user residence facility (URF) was awarded to the Perini Building Company (the CLO contractor) in December, with groundbreaking scheduled for March 20.

Aerial view of the APS shows the status of LOM and CLO construction as of December 20, 1994. Construction on the user residence facility will begin in March 1995.

LOM office space ready for CAT occupancy

Beamline Design Reviews and Commissioning Plans

The beamline review and planning process has two objectives: (1) the development of safe, high-quality beamlines and (2) the provision of information needed to enable the APS to furnish appropriate support on a timely basis.

Preliminary Beamline Design Review. The preliminary design for a beamline represents an approximately 30% design level for each of the beamline components. At this level of design, a CAT can develop cost estimates for beamline construction, as well as a realistic timeline for completion of the construction tasks. Detailed guidance for preparation of a Preliminary Design Report (PDR), as well as report review criteria, can be found in Section 5 of APS Beamline Design and Construction Requirements, ANL/APS/TB-14. A copy of this section is available from the APS User Office. To date, five PDRs (for eight sectors) have been submitted and reviewed by the APS Beamline Review Committee.

Final Beamline Design Review. The next phase of the APS beamline review process focuses on the final beamline design report (FDR), which should be submitted when approximately 90% of the total design effort has been completed. In addition to updating the beamline layout, component designs, and special operating requirements sections of the PDR, the FDR should provide the following:

  • Schedules for installation, detailing APS-required support
  • A hazard analysis and safety system design.

    This report will also be reviewed by the APS Beamline Review Committee. Draft guidelines and review criteria were provided to CAT Directors at the Research Directorate meeting held on January 20, 1995, and are also available through the APS User Office. To date, one FDR (for two sectors) has been received.

    Beamline Commissioning Review. The review process for beamline commissioning readiness will establish the steps to be taken by the CAT and APS working together to safely bring the beamlines into operation. Addressed will be plans to certify both the beamline shielding and the Personnel Safety System. Planning will address the various stages of beamline commissioning, associated commissioning parameters, and scheduling. Guidelines for the commissioning process are now being prepared by the APS.

    Front Ends Ready for Commissioning

    Once a particle beam has been stored in the APS storage ring, beamline front ends (FEs) and first optics enclosures (FOEs) installed on the same beamline will be commissioned together. Near-term plans call for the commissioning of the bending-magnet FEs and FOEs at Sectors 1, 2, 3 (SRI-CAT), and 5 (DND-CAT). (These beamlines were selected because of their advanced stage of development.) The 1-BM, 2-BM, and 3-BM front ends are now fully installed, and their vacuum systems have been fully checked out and integrated with the vacuum systems of the storage ring. The first insertion-device front end to be commissioned will be 1-ID. According to current plans, this commissioning is scheduled for late spring of 1995.

    Members of the Beamline Engineering Group celebrate the integration of the first front end (1-BM) on January 6, 1995.

    CAT News

    BESSRC-CAT and SRI-CAT jointly tested a novel cryogenically cooled thin-crystal monochromator at the ESRF (see p. 7 for related story). BESSRC-CAT also is developing a new solid-state position-sensitive de-tector, in joint collaboration with SRI-CAT and scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago, for high counting-rate applications and time-resolved measurements.

    MR-CAT has satisfied all requirements for signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the APS. A signing ceremony should take place shortly, making MR-CAT the 11th CAT to be assigned a sector location on the APS experiment hall floor. DND-CAT moved into the laboratory spaces of LOM 432 between Christmas and New Year's and is currently moving into its office spaces.

    UNI-CAT is fabricating beamline components using APS standard-component designs with minor modifications. Some of the fabrication work will be done at the APS. UNI-CAT has placed an order for a double-crystal monochromator. As of now, UNI-CAT has full funding support for the construction of one sector.

    The Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have committed sufficient additional funding to CMC-CAT to enable it to proceed with its Phase 1 construction plans, which consist of the construction of the first optics enclosure and one experimental radiation enclosure for each of its two beamlines.

    UNI-CAT now has four institutional members: the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, NIST, and UOP Corp.

    Three pharmaceutical firms have expressed an interest in joining IMCA-CAT; Sterling Winthrop plans to withdraw.

    IMCA-CAT has hired software expert Bill Lavender, formerly of SSRL. UNI-CAT has hired Peter Jemian as a research scientist with responsibilities for beamline control and data acquisition; Paul Zschack has accepted an appointment as UNI-CAT beamline manager. Gary Navroski from CHESS is now on staff at Bio-CARS (a subgroup of CARS-CAT), and Nancy Lazarz is the new Geo-CARS (another subgroup of CARS-CAT) operations coordinator. SBC-CAT has formed a technical advisory committee chaired by Don Bilderback.

    David Lynch has stepped down as the Director of Mu-CAT to accept a position as Director of the Microelectronics Research Center at Iowa State University. Alan Goldman, who had served as Deputy Director, is the new m-CAT Director.

    APS/CAT User Agreement Information Meeting

    The APS/CAT User Agreement Information Meeting was held at the APS on February 8th, 1995, to provide a forum for users to raise questions and concerns about the model agreements that were sent to the CAT Directors in January. A panel of Argonne and DOE attorneys addressed comments that were either made by users at the meeting or submitted in advance. As a result, the APS is now making several changes in the model APS/CAT User Agreements. New versions will be distributed to all the CATs shortly.

    1995 CAT Calendar

    January 19       APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
    January 20 Research Directorate Meeting
    March 17 Proposal Evaluation Board Progress Reviews
    April 6 Research Directorate Meeting
    April 7 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
    June 29 Research Directorate Meeting
    June 30 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
    October 16 APS X-Ray Centennial Symposium
    October 17 APSUO and SRI '95 Workshops
    October 17 Research Directorate Meeting
    October 18 APSUO Steering Committee Meeting
    October 18 Seventh Users Meeting for the APS
    October 18-20 Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation '95 Meeting

    Documents Sent

    The following documents or items have been sent to each CAT Director. For further information about any of them, please contact your CAT Director or the APS User Program Office.

  • Technical Update No. 5: Options for Procurement of Major Beamline Components by CATs; provided at the Technical Working Group meeting, November 29, 1994, and sent with the ANL/APS/TB-14 package on December 21, 1994

  • APS Beamline and Construction Requirements: A Reference Manual for Designers and Builders, ANL/APS/TB-14-revisions/replacements; sent December 21, 1994

  • Research Directorate agenda, backup material, minutes of the previous meeting, and action item list; sent January 13, 1995

  • Final Beamline Design Report, Draft Guidelines and Review Criteria; furnished to CAT Directors at the January 20, 1995, Research Directorate meeting

  • Revised Policy and Procedure for Establishing and Maintaining APS User Cost Accounts; sent February 17, 1995

    Monochromator Prototype Easily Handles Undulator-A Power Densities

    Insertion-device beamlines at third-generation, hard x-ray synchrotron sources, such as the APS, produce x-ray beams of unprecedented power densities, which pose a significant challenge to cooling silicon crystal monochromators. Recently, BESSRC-CAT's G.S. Knapp and SRI-CAT's C.S. Rogers, D.M. Mills, and W.K. Lee joined colleagues from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and SPring-8 in an experiment at the ESRF to test the diffraction performance of an integral liquid-nitrogen-cooled, thin-crystal silicon monochromator exposed to high heat loads. The experiment involved the first directly cooled monolithic crystal to incorporate a thin (0.6 mm) diffracting element. This novel monochromator design is being proposed for use on undulator or focused-wiggler beamlines.

    The diffracting element was chosen to be thin enough to transmit a large fraction of the incident high-energy x-ray power from the APS undulator A, while being sufficiently thick to transport absorbed heat to the liquid-nitrogen coolant. The experiment measured the performance of this crystal when subjected to a focused-wiggler beam at the ESRF, which approximated the expected absorbed power and beam profile of undulator A at 7 GeV and 100 mA.

    Double-crystal rocking curves were measured at several power values using the Si(333) reflection at 30 keV. There was no systematic broadening of the rocking curve full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the powers measured, and the peak intensity remained essentially constant. There also was no systematic broadening of the rocking curve FWHM (with a beam power of about 34 W) due to flow-induced vibrations up to a liquid-nitrogen flow rate of 6 l/min and fluid pressure of 400 kPa. The experiment demonstrated that an integrally cooled, thin-crystal silicon monochromator oriented in the symmetric Bragg geometry can operate without broadening the rocking curve, and hence without reducing the flux, in high power-density beams from third-generation synchrotrons. No measurable thermal strain above the 2 arc seconds due to mounting/fabrication was observed for an absorbed power up to 154 W and absorbed peak power density on the crystal face of 83 W/mm2, which corresponds to a peak power density at normal incidence of 415 W/mm2! This is possibly the highest power density that has been successfully handled with a silicon monochromator to date, surpassing the power density expected at the APS by nearly a factor of 3 at 7-GeV and 100-mA operation.

    A number of factors explain why this monochromator performed so well. Because the thermal conductivity of silicon is nearly an order of magnitude larger at liquid-nitrogen temperature than at room temperature, heat can be drawn out of the diffracting element for a smaller temperature differential. The monolithic design also provided an unbroken thermal path between the diffracting element and the coolant, and allowed the coolant channels and O-rings to be placed relatively far from the diffracting element at a very thick part of the crystal, so that much of the mounting strain was not propagated to the diffracting element.

    Plans are being made for this group to return to the ESRF to perform additional experiments with a monochromator having an improved design.

    What to Wear in the Beamline Installation Areas of the APS Experiment Hall

    The APS has specified clothing and protective equipment requirements for persons entering the beamline installation areas of the APS experiment hall, which are demarcated with yellow tape and/or marked with signs. At a minimum, those going into such designated areas for a visit or inspection must wear shoes having covered toes and backs, protective eye wear with side shields (obtainable from the APS User Office or a Floor Coordinator), and a hard hat (also obtainable from the APS User Office or a Floor Coordinator). Those involved in beamline installation must wear safety glasses bearing the "Z87" stamp, a hard hat (if the installation activity has the potential for falling objects), and clothing (full pants and shirt) that is reasonably snug with no loose flaps, cords, or strings. In addition, safety shoes are required when an individual is working with power tools or handling heavy objects. For further information, please contact Meg Noreuil at 708/252-2787.

    APSUO Creates Employment Registry

    As CAT beamline construction moves into high gear, CAT needs for scientific and technical support continue to increase. To assist CATs (and other potential employers of beamline scientific and support personnel), the APS Users Organization (APSUO) has established an employment registry, which can be accessed by clicking on APS Users Organization on the APS Home Page on the World Wide Web (WWW), which is located at Scientists and engineers in search of employment can either complete a brief resume form on-line and send it directly to the APS User Office or download a text form, which can be completed and either mailed or faxed to the APSUO Employment Registry, c/o the APS User Office. Individual resumes will not be available on-line. The APS User Office will maintain a master set, and copies will be made available to interested CATs upon request.

    User Contact Information

    Susan H. Barr, User Program Administrator
    Phone: 708/252-5981

    Steven Davey, User Technical Interface
    Phone: 708/252-5311

    Linda Carlson, Administrative Assistant
    Phone: 708/252-5089

    Diane Sandberg, User Program Secretary
    Phone: 708/252-9090

    Roseliz Rull, User Program Secretary
    Phone: 708/252-9090
    FAX (for all the above): 708/252-9250

    User Program Office
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Building 431-E
    9700 S. Cass Avenue
    Argonne, IL 60439-4815